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chemical defense in plants

Both inducible and constitutive defenses exist. Why plants, by virtue of their ability to photosynthesize, should occupy a unique place in theories of chemical defense allocation is unclear. Chemical defense in plant 1. This may condition a plant or plant tissue from susceptible to resistance as per their genetic potential. In: Wallace J.W., Mansell R.L. Induced chemical defense. The biosynthesis of defensive substances in plants can be induced by microbial or herbivoral attack. Phytoalexens are toxic antimicrobial substances. Surprising parallels exist between the chemical defense mechanisms of plants and animals. 40 List of Chemicals Derived from Plants - Herbal Drugs used in many application from manufacturing to the most significant as medicine - today there must be more than a hundred and twenty chemical derived from plants used for medicine purposes all over the world. Under what conditions do plants evolve different kinds of defenses?! Plant Chemical Defense is Highly Complex. Recent results demonstrate that the chemical defense of plants is mediated by lipid‐based signaling systems. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, vol 10. 2. Assessing costs. INDUCED CHEMICAL DEFENSE Phytoalexins:- (Phyton = plant; alexin = to ward off) Muller and Borger (1940) first used the term phytoalexins for fungistatic compounds produced by plants in response to injury (mechanical or chemical) or infection. Plants produce secondary compounds as derivatives of primary metabolism; animals do the same. Due to the huge number of low molecular weight secondary metabolites produced by plants and the variety of ways in which they can exert effects, it is a difficult endeavor to study the chemical defenses of plants. Plants deploy a wide array of secondary metabolites (also known as specialized metabolites or natural products) that facilitate interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment, including the essential role of chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens. II. (eds) Biochemical Interaction Between Plants and Insects. It is the last line of host defense in plants. Plant defense theory! It has now been established that biochemical defense mechanisms play more important role than the structural defense mechanisms. Biochemical Defense: Although structural defense mechanisms do prevent the attack of the pathogen, the defense mechanism also includes the chemical substances produced in the plant cells before or after the infection. PRE-EXISTING BIOCHEMICAL DEFENCE Plants liberate different chemicals, which interfere with activities of the pathogen and pathogenesis, thereby preventing or reduce infection. 1. Hypersensitivity response (hr) The HR is characterized by the rapid death of cells in … Many compounds act directly on the herbivore, whereas others act indirectly via the attraction of organisms from other trophic levels that, in turn, protect the plant. Chemical arms races eventually results in plant families acquiring a complex of defenses that exclude all but a fauna of related taxa of specialist herbivores! Plants have evolved a plethora of different chemical defenses covering nearly all classes of (secondary) metabolites that represent a major barrier to herbivory: Some are constitutive; others are induced after attack. Feeny P. (1976) Plant Apparency and Chemical Defense. Biochemical Defense Mechanism: The biochemical defense mechanism may consist of the presence or absence of a particular chemical substance or group of substances in a host plant which interferes with the growth and multiplication of the pathogen. Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. What are the predictors for the level of defense exhibited?! That eat them evolve different kinds of defenses? plants produce secondary compounds derivatives... 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