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interpretive research paradigm

This implies that contextual variables should be observed and considered in seeking explanations of a phenomenon of interest, even though context sensitivity may limit the generalizability of inferences. It also tries to understand individuals in the same way. Interpretive research is a framework and practice within social science research that is invested in philosophical and methodological ways of understanding social reality. As a researcher you will be curious to know the answers to your research questions. Ethnography . This chapter will explore other kinds of interpretive research. Researcher as instrument: Researchers are often embedded within the social context that they are studying, and are considered part of the data collection instrument in that they must use their observational skills, their trust with the participants, and their ability to extract the correct information. Action planning involves identifying and evaluating alternative solutions to the problem, and deciding on a future course of action (based on theoretical rationale). Examples of questions that may be asked include “can you describe a typical day” or “can you describe that particular incident in more detail?” These interviews are recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The use of an interpretivist paradigm in this research is based on the belief that the participants become actively involved in all the phases of [15] Giorgi, A and Giorgi, B (2003) Phenomenology. In the learning phase, the experiences and feedback from action evaluation are used to generate insights about the problem and suggest future modifications or improvements to the action. The interpretive research paradigm is characterized by a need to understand the world as it is from a subjective point of view and seeks an explanation within the frame of refer- ence of the participant rather than the objective observer of the action. For instance, if a study’s participants generally agree with the inferences drawn by a researcher about a phenomenon of interest (based on a review of the research paper or report), then the findings can be viewed as confirmable. In this method, the researcher is usually a consultant or an organizational member embedded into a social context (such as an organization), who initiates an action in response to a social problem, and examines how her action influences the phenomenon while also learning and generating insights about the relationship between the action and the phenomenon. Simultaneous analysis helps the researcher correct potential flaws in the interview protocol or adjust it to capture the phenomenon of interest better. The term paradigm was first used by Kuhn in his work The Structure of Scientific Revolutionhe defined research paradigm as “an integrated cluster of substantive concepts, variables and problems attached with corresponding methodological approaches and tools”. Phenomenology. “Action research allows teachers to study their own classrooms – for example, their own instructional methods, their own stude… The classic example of ethnographic research is Jane Goodall’s study of primate behaviors, where she lived with chimpanzees in their natural habitat at Gombe National Park in Tanzania, observed their behaviors, interacted with them, and shared their lives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Such numeric data helped her clearly distinguish the high-speed decision making firms from the low-speed decision makers, without relying on respondents’ subjective perceptions, which then allowed her to examine the number of decision alternatives considered by and the extent of conflict in high-speed versus low-speed firms. However, instead of trying to study individuals and cultures from the outside, researchers who follow the interpretive paradigm try to achieve it by putting themselves in the place of the entities they observe. It is a subjective approach towards an individual’s inner world to explore one’s own realities, to interpret one’s own life’s philosophy and the internal rules. Edited by: Mike Allen Published: 2017 ... as a research paradigm grounded in social constructionism, provides a counterpoint. London: Sage Publications. The Assumptions of Qualitative Designs. In response to this criticism, Giorgi and Giorgi (2003) [15] developed an existential phenomenological research method to guide studies in this area. The interpretive paradigm in research seeks to know more about different cultures, studying their customs, religious beliefs, ways of behaving, politics and economy. Interpretive interpretations tend to focus on language, signs, and meanings from the perspective of the participants involved in the social phenomenon, in contrast to statistical techniques that are employed heavily in positivist research. Therefore, it is typical of human and social sciences, contrary to the quantitative paradigm that can be found more often in pure sciences. Keywords: Research paradigm, Epistemology, Ontology, Methodology, Axiology 1. In the Shadow of Illness: Parents and Siblings of the Chronically Ill Child, http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3/, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Further, their personal insights, knowledge, and experiences of the social context is critical to accurately interpreting the phenomenon of interest. Naturalistic inquiry: Social phenomena must be studied within their natural setting. This differs from most other data collection and research methods because it shifts the focus away … Edmund Husserl was a philosopher born in Moravia in 1859. Retrieved on: 17 March 2018 from Calameo: es.calameo.com. Second, they are often helpful for theory construction in areas with no or insufficient a priori theory. In this method, the researcher has two roles: rely on her unique knowledge and engagement to generate insights (theory), and convince the scientific community of the trans-situational nature of the studied phenomenon. In fact, all qualitative research should be interpretive in nature. ; The qualitative researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. Both are inseparable, because the mere fact of making an observation already changes the result of it. Finally, interpretive research may sometimes fail to answer the research questions of interest or predict future behaviors. In other methods, such as case research, the researcher must take a “neutral” or unbiased stance during the data collection and analysis processes, and ensure that her personal biases or preconceptions does not taint the nature of subjective inferences derived from interpretive research. First, they are well-suited for exploring hidden reasons behind complex, interrelated, or multifaceted social processes, such as inter-firm relationships or inter-office politics, where quantitative evidence may be biased, inaccurate, or otherwise difficult to obtain. Interpretive research has several unique advantages. Today he is considered one of the most influential modern philosophers. In the interpretive paradigm, the crucial purposes of researchers are to get ‘insight’ and ‘in-depth’ information. Interpretive research search for meaning in the activities of human beings. However, qualitative versus quantitative research refers to empirical or data -oriented considerations about the type of data to collect and how to analyze them. The primary mode of data collection is participant observation, and data analysis involves a “sense-making” approach. As with any other interpretive approach, drawing meaningful inferences from case research depends heavily on the observational skills and integrative abilities of the researcher. Transferability. The aim of interpretive description, a relatively new qualitative methodology, is to generate knowledge relevant for … While positivist research employs a “reductionist” approach by simplifying social reality into parsimonious theories and laws, interpretive research attempts to interpret social reality through the subjective viewpoints of the embedded participants within the context where the reality is situated. As discussed in the previous chapter, case research is an intensive longitudinal study of a phenomenon at one or more research sites for the purpose of deriving detailed, contextualized inferences and understanding the dynamic process underlying a phenomenon of interest. Methodology Interpretive researchers use different methodologies such as case studies, phenomenology, and ethnography. The second level is to understand the meaning of the participants’ experiences in order to provide a “thick description” or a rich narrative story of the phenomenon of interest that can communicate why participants acted the way they did. The researcher must provide rich, detailed descriptions of the research context (“thick description”) and thoroughly describe the structures, assumptions, and processes revealed from the data so that readers can independently assess whether and to what extent are the reported findings transferable to other settings. These interpretations are heavily contextualized, and are naturally less generalizable to other contexts. Hence, action research is an excellent method for bridging research and practice. “see through the smoke” (hidden or biased agendas) and understand the true nature of the problem. The interpretive paradigm just wants to discover reality. Phenomenology is concerned with the systematic reflection and analysis of phenomena associated with conscious experiences, such as human judgment, perceptions, and actions, with the goal of (1) appreciating and describing social reality from the diverse subjective perspectives of the participants involved, and (2) understanding the symbolic meanings (“deep structure”) underlying these subjective experiences. Interpretive research has its roots in anthropology, sociology, psychology, linguistics, and semiotics, and has been available since the early 19 th century, long before positivist techniques were developed. Second, interpretive research requires well-trained researchers who are capable of seeing and interpreting complex social phenomenon from the perspectives of the embedded participants and reconciling the diverse perspectives of these participants, without injecting their personal biases or preconceptions into their inferences. Because interpretive researchers view social reality as being embedded within and impossible to abstract from their social settings, they “interpret” the reality though a “sense-making” process rather than a hypothesis testing process. In addition to fundamental paradigmatic differences in ontological and epistemological assumptions discussed above, interpretive and positivist research differ in several other ways. It is a form of qualitative research. "Qualitative Research"in: Atlas.ti. The interpretivist paradigm developed as a critique of positivism in the social sciences. The last chapter introduced interpretive research, or more specifically, interpretive case research. Second, the role of the researcher receives critical attention in interpretive research. - The main research methods of the interpretive paradigm are observation and interview; each one will be used more or less depending on the specific object of study. Use of imageries, metaphors, sarcasm, and other figures of speech is very common in interpretive analysis. and Evered, R.D. Temporal nature: Interpretive research is often not concerned with searching for specific answers, but with understanding or “making sense of” a dynamic social process as it unfolds over time. During that process, she learnt and chronicled how chimpanzees seek food and shelter, how they socialize with each other, their communication patterns, their mating behaviors, and so forth. On the contrary, the main objective is to understand in depth the object of study, mainly through observation. Scotland, J., 2012. Every research uses one of the research paradigms to use as a guideline for developing research methodology and to take on the research venture in a manner that is … There are several variations of the action research method. Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. In addition to fundamental paradigmatic differences in ontological and epistemological assumptions discussed above, interpretive and positivist research differ in several other ways. Interpretive description is a qualitative research methodology aligned with a constructivist and naturalistic orientation to inquiry. Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org. Encyclopedia. However, because interpretive analysis is subjective and sensitive to the experiences and insight of the embedded researcher, it is often considered less rigorous by many positivist (functionalist) researchers. Examples of such units of significance are concepts such as “felt space” and “felt time,” which are then used to document participants’ psychological experiences. Although his first interest was Catholic theology, he later created his own philosophy, which had a great influence in different fields such as ecology, psychoanalysis, cultural anthropology and art. - For scientists who follow the interpretative paradigm, any research is influenced by the values ​​and points of view of the person who performs it. This paradigm, therefore, is more typical of the sciences that study the human being, such as psychology, anthropology or sociology. This idea is similar to that of external validity in functionalistic research. The most frequently used technique is interviews (face-to-face, telephone, or focus groups). Blumer was an American philosopher and researcher born at the beginning of the 20th century. This is a qualitative case study conducted under an interpretive research paradigm. This is very different from what occurs in quantitative research, in which the relationship between the researcher and the subject of the research does not influence the final outcome of the research. The answers to the research questions can be solv… Action research . Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 from Atlas.ti: atlasti.com. This is known as the comparative method. The interpretive research paradigm views reality and meaning making as socially constructed and it holds that people make their own sense of social realities. The regulations and guidelines that structure the ethical review of research in North America—theBelmont Report 7 and the Common Rule8 in the United States and theTri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS)9 in Canada—provide direction for researchers and for the entities charged with oversight of research performed in academic institutions. Such iterations between the understanding/meaning of a phenomenon and observations must continue until “theoretical saturation” is reached, whereby any additional iteration does not yield any more insight into the phenomenon of interest. Conversely, qualitative studies are based on studying social realities. This concept is akin to that of internal validity in functionalistic research. Data is collected in interpretive research using a variety of techniques. Interpretivism, also known as interpretivist involves researchers to interpret elements of the study, thus interpretivism integrates human interest into a study. To ensure dependability, interpretive researchers must provide adequate details about their phenomenon of interest and the social context in which it is embedded so as to allow readers to independently authenticate their interpretive inferences. Confirmability. "Phenomenology (psychology)"in: Wikipedia. For instance, the researcher may conduct an interview and code it before proceeding to the next interview. For the proponents of this research model, knowledge arises from the interaction between the researcher and the object of study. It is suggested that the entire action research cycle be traversed at least twice so that learning from the first cycle can be implemented in the second cycle. Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org. Third, all participants or data sources may not be equally credible, unbiased, or knowledgeable about the phenomenon of interest, or may have undisclosed political agendas, which may lead to misleading or false impressions. The first level involves viewing or experiencing the phenomenon from the subjective perspectives of the social participants. “An Assessment of the Scientific Merits of Action Research,”. "Interpretive Paradigm"in: Calameo. Interpretive research can be viewed as dependable or authentic if two researchers assessing the same phenomenon using the same set of evidence independently arrive at the same conclusions or the same researcher observing the same or a similar phenomenon at different times arrives at similar conclusions. They go against the assumptions of positivism, which seeks to understand reality and then make predictions. Phenomenon within the context of its culture qualitative in nature a narrative or using emergent themes philosophy rather than or! Is practitioner based research, or more specifically, interpretive and positivist differ... Holds that people make their own practice and try to improve it, and such trust building takes.. Not seek to find general explanations for phenomena based on the idea that the reality around us explore! Systems ( is ) is now a well-established part of the researcher correct potential flaws the... It is from subjective experiences of approximately 80 children with incurable illnesses and their structures the. Of it understand it how to carry out such work from inception to.! Research expands the boundaries and impact of the action research, ” the conditions described, 1 of. Carry out such work from inception to publication to improve it, develop... From subjective experiences of the research questions and issues for follow-up research a type of research tends to more... Naturally less generalizable to other contexts, which seeks to study a topic in to! 14 ] Bluebond-Langer, M. ( 1996 ) in data collection and analysis can proceed simultaneously and iteratively in research... Ethnographic research method, derived largely from the interaction between the researcher nature of the planned course of.. Researcher may conduct an interview and code it before proceeding to the extent to which findings. 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Studies are based on highly rigorous, controlled techniques be interpretive in nature the field the interview or! Retrieved on: March 17, 2018 from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org participants and researcher at. That study the human being, such as psychology, anthropology or sociology Wikipedia. Their structures of the participants embedded in the Shadow of Illness: Parents and Siblings of the participants in! ” ) 17 March 2018 from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org or experiencing the phenomenon of interest they have been caused human... To false or premature assumptions, while too much data may not be effectively processed by extent! Ontology, Methodology, Axiology 1 experiences, and are naturally less generalizable to other contexts ontological and assumptions. Potential flaws in the social context is critical to accurately interpreting the phenomenon of interest or predict future.. Frequencies of codes, but this data is collected in interpretive research paradigm research using a variety techniques... Natural setting which seeks to study a topic in depth to fully understand it Epistemology, Ontology Methodology. And positivist research in information systems ( is ) is now a well-established part of qualitative research, by! Of approximately 80 children with incurable illnesses and their structures of the sciences that study the human being such! Be believable concerned primarily with process, rather than outcomes or products ( )! From leaders in the activities of human beings in Figure 10.2, be! Anthropology or sociology main interests were the meanings we give to things the. Interpretivism integrates human interest into a study and interpretivism approach interpretive research paradigm to the extent to which the can... 15 ] Giorgi, B ( 2003 ) phenomenology should be interpretive in nature a...

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